Why the 4% Rule Is Only a Starting Point for Mid-Career Tech Professionals
Planning for retirement for mid-career tech professionals has never been more important and yet so challenging. Given the problematic inflationary conditions of the past two years, the risk that worries most continues to be outliving their savings. This is because, when it comes to markets and the economy, we can't control the timing of events - including day-to-day market swings and whether investors begin retirement in a bull or bear market. What we can control, however, is our own behavior by staying disciplined. While there are never any guarantees, history shows that having a sound financial plan that can adjust to changing conditions, accompanied by proper financial guidance, is the best way to minimize retirement risks.
Two of the most important concepts when it comes to retirement and investment planning are "the 4% rule" and "sequence of returns risk." In simple terms, the 4% rule attempts to answer the question, "How much can I withdraw from my portfolio each year throughout my retirement?" William Bengen coined this concept who observed that, historically, a 4% annual withdrawal rate from a portfolio was "safe" in that retirees were unlikely to exhaust their savings over a 30-year retirement horizon, accounting for inflation. For this reason, this is sometimes called the "SAFEMAX rate."
Maximum withdrawal rates have varied over history
How does the 4% rule hold up today? The accompanying chart shows the hypothetical "safe" withdrawal rates based on 60/40 stock/bond portfolios and inflation rates across historical 30-year periods and estimates for more recent years. These illustrative calculations show that only once in the 1960s did the maximum withdrawal rate fall as low as 4%. On average, and with the benefit of hindsight, retirees would have been able to withdraw 6.9% each year without running out of funds. Of course, the safe withdrawal rate can vary dramatically from year to year, which should not be surprising given how much market returns can change across a cycle. In general, this pattern is positive for retirees since it suggests that there is a historical basis for steady withdrawal rates of 4% or above.
However, there are several points to keep in mind. First, this depends heavily on sticking to an investment plan throughout the entire period. Investors who would have overreacted to short-term market pullbacks would have failed to rebound alongside the market, negatively impacting their withdrawal rates later in retirement. This is why investing is as much about our own behavior as it is about market and economic events. Second, this analysis is oversimplified since it does not account for differences in portfolio construction and risk tolerance across individuals, which are a critical part of real-life financial planning. After all, a 60/40 portfolio may be quite aggressive for many retirees, especially later in life.
The sequence of returns can dramatically impact the value of a retirement portfolio
Finally, and most importantly, simple rules of thumb should be used with caution since they may not account for the sequence of returns or the idea that the timing of bear and bull markets can dramatically impact the value of a portfolio when withdrawals are being made. Specifically, when the market is down early in retirement, withdrawing funds amounts to "selling low." Investors are then less able to take advantage of future bull markets and the benefit of compound interest over the remaining years due to the combination of principal value loss due to market values on top of the portfolio distributions. Conversely, withdrawing when the market is up ("selling high") allows the portfolio to maintain a higher value and compound faster, providing a cushion when the inevitable recession and bear market hits. Unfortunately, investors don't get to choose whether they begin with a bull or bear market - they need to adjust accordingly to the hand they are dealt.
So, the 4% rule is a helpful place to start but lacks the nuance that may be appropriate in balancing spending and risk throughout one's retirement. Understanding the various factors that affect withdrawal rates requires financial guidance, and adjusting to changing conditions requires a financial plan sensitive to an individual's needs.
Life expectancy continues to rise
What simple rules of thumb also don't account for are increasing life expectancies. For instance, according to the Social Security Administration, 40-year-old men and women today have a life expectancy of 79 and 83, respectively, as shown in the accompanying chart. However, the 90th percentile could live well into their 90s. Similarly, men and women who are 65 years old today could live to 83 and 86, on average, while the 90th percentile could live to 94 and 97, respectively. A decade or longer difference, i.e., a retirement of 20 years vs. 30 years, or 30 years vs. 40 years, can have dramatic implications for investment portfolios and financial plans.
The prospect of living longer than expected is often referred to as "longevity risk." This risk is asymmetric because running out of funds is far worse for most households than leaving money behind for loved ones, charities, and more. This means that life expectancy is an essential input to any financial plan, and ultimately, managing longevity risk is another reason why all individuals can benefit from professional financial advice.
The bottom line: While the 4% rule can act as a basic guide for investors as they plan their wealth trajectory to get to retirement, it unfortunately, isn't enough. Especially for mid-career tech professionals, sticking to long-term investment and financial plans that evaluate and consider the numerous retirement planning risks, such as longevity risk, sequence of return risk, and inflation risk, will have the most significant impact in achieving their long-term goals.
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